*’The Light of Truth’ or English Translation of Swami Dayanand Saraswati’s ‘Satyarth Prakash’ by Pt. Gangaprasad Upadyaya.Ed. 1946.

Q. Does the universe originate from God or from anything else?

A. Its agental cause is God, but its material cause is Prakriti (material radica).

Q. Did not God create Prakriti?

A. No. It is beginningless.

Q. What is the meaning of ‘beginning’ and how many things are beginningless?

A. God, soul and material cause (material radica) of the universe are beginningless.(VIII 3, 4, p.290-291)

Q. How many are the causes of the world?

A. Three, one agental cause, second material cause and the third auxiliary cause.

Agental cause is that by whom the thing is made and without whose agency the thing cannot come into being. The agental cause does not convert himself into that being. He simply changes one thing into the form of another.

The material cause is that without which the thing cannot be made, which itself is transformed into that thing and is again dissolved also.

The auxiliary cause is that which is instrumental or an ordinary help in the formation of the thing.

The agental cause is of two kinds:-

The chief agental is God who makes the universe out of the material-radica, sustains and dissolves it and governs everything. Then there is another agental cause the soul which is an agent in an ordinary sense. It takes the articles out of God’s creations and fashions them into different form. The material-radica consists of atoms or material for the creation of the world. This cannot make or unmake itself because it is not sentient. It is made if someone makes it and is unmade if someone unmakes it. Sometimes an insentient cause, e. g, God made seed if thrown in the soil and watered, germinates and grows into a tree, and is burnt into ashes if brought into contact with fire. But the organised creation or dissolution of these things depend upon God and souls. When a thing is made, it require knowledge, insight, power, hand and other tools, time, space, etc., as auxiliary causes, e.g., if a pot has to be made, it needs the agental cause potter, material cause clay, and auxiliary causes, wheel, space, time, light, eyes, hands, knowledge and activity. Without these three causes nothing can be made or unmade.(VIII, 11, p. 295-96)


Q. Has this universe any beginning or not?

A. No. Just as night precedes day and day precedes night, or day follows night and night follows day, just so dissolution precedes creation and creation precedes dissolution, or dissolution follows creation and creation follows dissolution. The cycle has been going on form eternity. It has neither beginning nor end. But as you see the beginning and end both, of every day and every night, similarly every creation and every dissolution has it beginning and its end. God, soul and materia-radica, these three are eternal by themselves (i. e., individually). But the creation and life of the universe are cyclically eternal. By cyclic eternity, we mean stream-like continuity. The stream of a river is ever continuous. It may dry up in the summer but in rainy season it again begins flowing. Just as attributes, activities and nature of God are beginningless, so are the creation, sustenance and dissolution of this world. Just as there in no beginning or end of God’s attributes, activities and nature, similarly there is no beginning or end of the actions, which of necessity, emanate from him.(VIII 45 p. 314)

Q. How long has it been since the creation of the world?

A. Since the creation of the world and the revelation of the Vedas have elapsed one billion, ninety-six crores, several lacs and several thousand years. I have explained it elaborately in my book “Introduction to the commentary of Rg. Veda”.(VIII 52 p. 318)